Diagnostic Precision

A SeraCare blog focused on precision medicine and advanced clinical diagnostics

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Evolution of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) testing

Catagory: NGS, #Quality, New Reference Material, reference materials, trisomy, Reproductive Health, Non-invasive Prenatal Testing

Posted by Agnes Caruso on Feb 5, 2020 11:45:00 AM
Prenatal screening for aneuploidy has changed dramatically since the 1970s. Non-invasive methods developed in the 1980s and 1990s, combined measurements of maternal serum analytes and ultrasonography. The problem with those methods was not just a high false-negative rate of 12% to 23%, a high positive rate of 5% and a poor sensitivity, ranging from 50% to 95% 1. Uncertain results frequently led to invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling to perform karyotyping on fetal samples. Both of those procedures carry a risk of miscarriage.
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What is Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)?

Catagory: NIPT, #Quality, New Reference Material, reference materials, trisomy, Reproductive Health

Posted by SeraCare Team on Jan 20, 2020 3:00:00 PM
Fetal aneuploidy affects about 9 in 1,000 live births. The definition of aneuploidy is an abnormal number of chromosomes ; with 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, 46 is the normal number, while aneuploidy individuals will have 45 or 47.  In trisomy, there is one additional chromosome, typically chr21, 18 or 13 (it is not a coincidence that these are the smallest chromosomes in humans).  Historically, the invasive methods amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) were used with risk to the pregnancy, with about a 1% chance of miscarriage due to the procedure. Non-invasive methods based upon ultrasound and serum biomarkers are useful screening tests, but were of limited reliability as they were indirect measures of chromosomal abnormalities1.   Photograph courtesy of Flickr user Can H.
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